Corn+Soybean Digest [1]

Glossary of Terms A-C

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2008 Farm Bill: Also called The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, the 2008 Farm Bill was enacted into law in June 2008, will govern the bulk of Federal agriculture and related programs for the next 5 years. Its 15 titles include administrative and funding authorities for programs that cover income and commodity price support, farm credit, and risk management; conservation though land retirement, stewardship of land and water resources, and farmland protection; food assistance and agricultural development efforts abroad and promotion of international access to American farm products; food stamps, domestic food distribution, and nutrition initiatives; rural community and economic development initiatives, including regional development, rural energy efficiency, water and waste facilities, and access to broadband technology; research on critical areas of the agricultural and food sector; accessibility and sustainability of forests; encouraging production and use of agricultural and rural renewable energy sources; and initiatives for attracting and retaining beginning and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers.
Printer friendly PDF [7] (4.0 MB) as of April 15, 2009.

Printer friendly PDF [8] (1.65 MB) Original 2008 Fam Bill

Keep up with the 2008 Farm Bill recent news [9].

2,4-D: Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. A herbicide used on corn and soybean fields.

ACRE: Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) is a new commodity program included in the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 farm bill). Farmers can choose to participate in ACRE or they can continue to enroll in traditional commodity programs. ACRE is designed to provide revenue support to farmers as an alternative to the price support that farmers are used to receiving from commodity programs. Here, we answer some frequently asked questions about this new program. Read some frequenly asked questions [10].

Agriculture Adjustment Act of 1938: P.L. 75-430 [11] (February 16, 1938) was enacted as an alternative and replacement for the farm subsidy policies found unworkable in the AAA legislation of 1933. The 1938 Act was the first to make price support mandatory for corn, cotton, and wheat to help maintain a sufficient supply in low production periods along with marketing quotas to keep supply in line with market demand. It established permissive supports for butter, dates, figs, hops, turpentine, rosin, pecans, prunes, raisins, barley, rye, grain sorghum, wool, winter cover-crop seeds, mohair, peanuts, and tobacco for the 1938-40 period.

Asian Soybean Rust: Caused by the Phakopsora pachyrhizi fungus, Asian Soybean Rust [12] is a major soybean disease that was discovered for the first time in the continental United States in nine southeastern/Midwestern states in November and December, 2004. It has for some years been active in Asia and Australia, causing periodic epidemic outbreaks in some regions, and had in recent years spread to Hawaii and Puerto Rico. First detected in Japan in 1902, Asian soybean rust can cause premature defoliation, with yield losses of up to 70% reported in farms in Asia. Phakopsora meibomiae is the less-virulent fungal species found in South America that also causes soybean rust. Read more articles on the Corn & Soybean Digest Archive [13].

ATVs: All-terrain vehicles. Used on many farms.

Auto-guidance: using gps to automatically guide/steer a tractor/combine.

Best Management Practices: The most efficient and effective way of accomplishing a task, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for large numbers of people.

Biodiesel: a renewable fuel made from vegetable-based oil or soy oil, then mixed with diesel fuel. Can also be used in 100% renewable form, also called B100.

Biotechnology: technology based on biology, agriculture, food science and medicine. Genetically modifies the plant. Also referred to as GMO.

Bt: Bacillus thuringiensis, a pesticide.

Carbon credits: Units of carbon emissions that can be purchased or sold between participating members (i.e. countries, corporations, etc.) in order to meet compliance with carbon emission allowance.

Carbon trading: The process of buying and selling carbon credits.

CO2 emissions: Billions of tons of atmospheric CO2 are removed from the atmosphere by oceans and growing plants, also known as sinks, and are emitted back into the atmosphere annually through natural processes also known as sources.

Conservation tillage: tillage methods that reduce passes across the field and leave more residue on the surface. They include no-till and strip-till.

Conventional beans: soybeans without stacked traits, including pest resistance.

Corn-based ethanol: ethanol fuel derived from corn.

Crop inputs: includes items such as seed, fertilizer, herbicides, insecticides, pesticides.

Crop residue: plant material left on the field after harvest.